Ancient Technologies & Civilizations

I have always been interested in things ancient - peoples, technologies, and the like. The lower section of this site depicts several ancient artifacts that, to this day, evoke from scientists and archaeologists alike the line from Yul Brenner in the movie "The King And I" - "Tis a puzzlement!"

But first, let me set the stage.

I often wonder if there were advanced civilizations prior to our current historical knowledge. This wondering stems from many artifacts, historical inconsistences, etc, that indicate history as we know it may not be complete. There are many theories about our distant past that are just that - "theories"; or, possibly good theories but not proven. Many such theories are being shown to be not quite so accurate.

With all the archealogical efforts conducted, why has no real evidence poped up of such a prior civilization? Good question. However, whatever the cause of their surmised disappearance, there is a rational explanation as to why no, or very little, evidence exists today.

A while back there was a documentary called "Life After People". It postulated that were all humans suddenly to disappear, within a millenia all evidence of our being here would be gone - save for any structures similar to the pyramids of Giza. Click Here to see the documentary. In addition, Robert M. Schoch, Ph.D., author of "Forgotten Civilization" postures that solar outbursts and plasma discharges could have been the cause of a prior civilization's disappearance. Whatever the reason, questions still abound.

However, rather than focusing fully on when such a civilization existed, mabe the question of where they existed is just as important.


The earth, for much of its history as a planet, has been covered in ice. The frozen water during an ice age has to come from somewhere. The answer is the oceans, of course! When the oceans' waters are captured by the giant ice sheets the water nearest to land receeds. Where do people mostly live? Near water, they do. Just look at today's global population density. We, as humans, have always and will always live near the water. It's a survival thing.

So, it is entirely reasonable to assert that peoples moved closer to the oceans as the waters receeded. Remember, this ice buildup occurs over a very long period of time.

Now, when the ice age ends - again over a long period of time - the oceans begin to fill back up. Thus, areas used for living started to disappear along with all evidence of a civilization ever having been there.

A small example:

My wife and I visited the city of Troy in present day Turkey. Rememering the story of the Trojan War (i.e., 'The Illiad'), I was surprised to learn that the coastline was some 15 to 20 miles from Troy. This, of course, didn't match up with the descriptions in 'The Illiad'. What was wrong? Was my memory that bad?

Actually, my memory (for once) was correct. What used to be water, over the many years, had filled in with silt. What used to be a city on the water's edge is now far inland. What is shown below as Troia Bay exists no longer. It happened gradually.

The earth is currently in an interglacial period. The last glacial period ended about 10,000 years ago. Man has been around for a lot longer than 10,000 years. So, easily it is possible for a prior, advanced civilization to have thrived - and disappeared as the oceans filled after the last ice age. One wonders what now-buried-under-the-sea civilizations may have thrived only to be lost and, now, are waiting to be found.

So, independent of the when or the where, what happend to all the knowledge that people must have gleaned from such a prior civilization? After all, just because the structures may have disappeared, the people must have survided - or at least some of them.

The great library of Alexanderia was the repository of most of the knowledge of humankind. Through several wars and fires it was destroyed. Who knows what ancient knowledge was lost.

Edgar Cayce predicted a "Hall of Records" located beneath the Sphinx in Egypt. This "Hall" supposedly contains the missing history of the lost continent of Atlantis along with the missing history of the human race. People scoffed at him and his predictions - until! A 25 x 40 foot underground cavern was discovered near the Sphinx in 1997. NASA scientists verified the cavern. Egypt has refused to allow excavation. "You never know", as it were. Or, what hidden ancient knowledge repositories may emerge in the future?

Some examples of facts follow that don't exacly fit into our (previously) known historical view of the world:

1. The Dogon

There is a mystery sounding a "lost" civilization, the Dogon. The “mystery” is that the Dogon allegedly acquired knowledge of Sirius B, the white dwarf companion star of Sirius A, invisible to the naked eye. This was part of their tribal "tradition".

The first reported contact with the Dogon was by Louis Desplagnes, a French colonial army lieutenant, in 1903. Sirus B (the "companion" of Sirus A) was discovered in 1844. A "lost", newly discovered, previously uncontacted civilization having an "historical tradition" of a star being a binary system where the binary status was only discovered 59 years before the tribe's "discovery"? Pretty amazing.

How was such information gained? And, from whom? And, when?

2. The Sphinx of Egypt

Current estimates put the age of the pyramids of Giza at 3,200 BC; the Sphynx at 2,500 BC. No one really knows for sure. Prior to their construction the peoples of Egypt were little more than farmers - no advanced expertise or history in technology has been found. Then, all of a sudden, the pyramids and the Sphinx are built. One would expect that some historical evidence would exist showing a progression of technology advancement leading to these edifices. None exists.

On to the Sphinx - was the Sphinx really built in 2,500 BC (or thereabouts)? Or is it much, MUCH older?

Most Egyptologists believed that the Sphinx was built in 2500 BC in the time of the pharaoh Chephren (or Khafre), who is identified with the Second Pyramid at Giza.

The vertical weathering patterns on the Sphinx and its enclosure, Robert M. Schoch and John West argued, were not caused by wind effect, as had previously been thought, but by water - water from torrential rains and pouring down in sheets over these ancient structures. But how could this be?

Assume for a minute that the Sphinx was built at an epoch when such rains were common in this region but that the other monuments at Giza, however, were built long after these rains had stopped occurring. Then, since such heavy rains stopped occurring thousands of years before the time of Khafre, how old must the Sphinx be? And, built by whom?

To watch a documentary on this, Click Here.

3. Ancient India

An advanced city has been uncovered in India, the city of Dwarka. This city is as old as 32,000 years - far predating what was previously know to be possible for human civilization.

Further, ancient Indian sanskrit texts (e.g., the Ramayana and Mahabharata) speak of Vimana, ancient flying machines. Also, described are wars happening with result details sounding what Nagasaki and Hiroshima looked like after nuclear weapons were used during WWII. Was this nothing more than sanskrit "Sci Fi"? Pretty far looking for Sci Fi from 2,000 BC, for sure. But, who knows!

4. Göbekli Tepe

Göbekli Tepe is an archaeological site at the top of a mountain ridge in the Southeastern Anatolia Region of Turkey, northeast of the town of Sanliurfa. It includes two settlement phases dating back to the 10th-8th millennium BC. A 12,000 years old city? This predates prior understanding of "civilization" by thousands of years. Click Here to watch a documentary on this ancient site.

OK. Now for the artifacts that envoke "Tis a puzzlement":

Thanks in part to the



Dated to 80 A.D, probably used as calendar and astronomical calculator for the motions of stars and planets. It is very sophisticated device that consists of 30 toothed wheels, of diameter from 9 to 132 mm, being able to rotate at a different speed each, dials and scaled metal plates with inscriptions related to the signs of zodiac, names of the planets. The engraved signs inform about the equinoxes, months, winds and constellations being in their different phases.

This device was created 1,000 years before the gear was "invented".

An excellent History Channel video on the Antikythera Mechanism may be see by Clicking Here.

Was unearthed in Khujut Rabu, in the ruins of a Parthian village outside Baghdad in 1938 by German archaeologist Wilhelm Konig. It is a five-inch-long (13 cm) clay jar containing a copper cylinder that its edge was soldered with a 60-40 lead-tin alloy, and bottom was capped with a crimped-in copper disk and held in place with asphalt or bitumen.

Another insulating layer of asphalt sealed the top and also protected an iron bar suspended into the center of the cylinder. This one is known as the Baghdad Battery and is about 2,000 years old. A dozen of other similar batteries were unearthed in Iraq.

Most sources date the batteries to around 200 BC - in the Parthian era, circa 250 BC to AD 225. However the Parthians were skilled warriors rather and their scientific achievements were not known. It would appear then that they inherited these batteries from one of the earliest known civilizations. According to the experts, the device after being filled with an acid or alkaline liquid could create an electric charge. It is believed that this old battery might have been used to electroplate silver, but it is only one of the theories.

Important is to emphasize that electric batteries were not "invented" until 1799 by Alessandro Volta.


An uncommon stone imbedded with screw-threaded metal bar from a collector in Lanzhou Mr. Zhilin Wang. He found this stone on a field research trip to the Mazong Mountain area located on the border of Gansu and Xijiang provinces. The pear-shaped stone is extremely hard and has a mysterious black color. It is about 8 x 7 cm and weighs 466 grams.

The most surprising part of the stone is the imbedded 6 cm cone-shaped metal bar which bears clear screw threads. The stone is one of the most valuable in China and in the world. There are many hypotheses about the formation of this stone, but all seem to be incredible. The screw-threaded metal bar is tightly enclosed in the black lithical material. Moreover, the screw thread width remains consistent from the thick end to the thin end, instead of varying due to the growth of organisms.

Is this a relic from a prehistoric civilization?


In 1898 a small wooden, winged object was found in the tomb of Pa-di-Imen in north Saqqara, Egypt. The model has the exact proportions of a very advanced form of "pusher-glider" however it was identified as a "bird model". Made of very light sycamore the craft weighs 0.5 oz. with straight and aerodynamically shaped wings, spanning about 7 inches. It looks like modern-day aircraft though it is 2,000 years old. According to analysis it was discovered that the object was aerodynamically sound.


If one looks closely, other objects on the panel look very much like modern aricraft. Coincidence?


The mechanical features of the object suggest a highly sophisticated level of aerodynamics and construction. The objects are very old and small, approximately 2 inches long, objects, made of gold are estimated to be AT LEAST 1,000 years old.

For archaeologists the artifacts were depicting animals and were classified as Sinu, a pre-Inca culture from A.D. 500 to 800... But only for them. For aeronautical engineers these objects more looked like airplanes with delta-shaped wings. So in 1997 they built a scaled up version of the objects to the exact specifications of the prototypes with the simple addition of an engine and propeller. The test was successful. The radio controlled aircraft flew performing airborn loops, rolls and other maneuvers, and then performed perfect landing.

According to Dr. Ivan Sanderson, who studied the artifacts, these look too "mechanical" like an airplane, to be a natural object. Other similar objects have been discovered in Costa Rica, Venezuela and Peru.


A human size and shaped, clear quartz skull, 11.7 lbs, two pieces with a separate jaw, discovered in Lubaantum (now Belize) in 1924 in the ruins of a Mayan City by F. A. Mitchell-Hedges. This skull is currently near Toronto, Canada with Anna Mitchell-Hedges, his adopted daughter. The skull is an almost absolute copy of our own human skull except it is circular in the temples and has a handle like form in the cheekbones. It's ancient.

The amazing thing is that even under a microscope no tool marks can be found.


Was unearthed in the Coso Mountains, California, while looking for unusual rocks. One of these pieces of rock contained inside remains of some kind of device. Beneath the outer layer of hardened clay, pebbles and fossil inclusions was a hexagonal shaped layer of a substance resembling wood, softer than agate or jasper.

This layer formed a casing around a three-quarter inch wide cylinder made of solid white porcelain or ceramic, and in the center of the cylinder is a two millimeter shaft of shiny metal core, about .08 inch (2 millimeters) in diameter. Also, surrounding the ceramic cylinder are rings of copper, mostly corroded.

Embedded too in the rock, though separate from the cylinder, are two more man-made items - what look like a nail and a washer. The rock, in which the artifact resembling a spark plug was found, was dated to about 500,000 years old. Those who manufactured this artifact had to possess an advanced technology.


In the years 1991-1993, gold prospectors on the small river Narada, on the eastern side of the Ural mountains, have found unusual, mostly spiral-shaped objects. The size of these things ranges from a maximum of 3 cm (1.2 in.) down to an incredible 0.003 mm, about 1/10,000th of an inch!

To date, these inexplicable artifacts have been found in their thousands at various sites near the rivers Narada, Kozhim, and Balbanyu, and also by two smaller streams named Vtvisty and Lapkhevozh, mostly at depths between 3 and 12 meters (10 and 40 ft.) The spiral-form objects are composed of various metals: the larger ones are of copper, while the small and very small ones are of the rare metals tungsten and molybdenum.

Tungsten has a high atomic weight, and is also very dense, with a melting point of 3410 deg. C (6100 deg. F). It is used principally for the hardening of special steels, and in unalloyed form for the filaments of light bulbs. Molybdenum also has a high density, and a respectable melting point of 2650 deg. C (4740 deg. F). This metal too is used for hardening steels and giving them corrosion-resistant properties, these being used principally for highly-stressed weapon parts and vehicle armor.

All tests carried out date these objects to around 20,000 years old.


These Peru bronze wheels, described by professor Rafael Larco Hoyle in his work "Peru" must be very old. They resemble modern gears.


In 1945 Waldemar Julsrud, a German immigrant and an experienced archeologist, discovered some little clay statues, buried at the foot of El Toro Mountain, near Acambaro, Guanajuato, in Mexico. Near El Toro and at the other side of the town, in the vicinity of Mount Chivo, more than 33,000 figurines made of porcelain were discovered. Similar relics found nearby were associated to the Chupicuaro pre-classical Chupicuaro Culture (800 BC to 200 AD). The figurines are representations of various species of dinosaurs, which are believed to have disappeared 65 millions years ago.

It should be realized that it wasn't until 1841 that British scientist Richard Owen first identified ancient bones as being apart from any previousloy known species. The ancient animals were so different, in fact, that they deserved their own name. So Owen dubbed the group "Dinosauria," which means "terrible lizards."

Consider that this "first identification" was on ancient bones. At that time no one had any idea what these "terrible lizards" looked like - some 2 millennia after the above carvings.


Hundreds of carved stone spheres, roughly three inches in diameter, believed to date to around 2000 BC, have been found in Scotland. Some are carved with lines corresponding to the edges of regular polyhedra.  Roughly half have 6 knobs---like the one at right above---but the others range from three to 160 knobs.  The more mathematically regular ones do not appear to have had a special importance. 

For example, in addition to the 12-knob dodecahedral form shown in the center and just to its right above, there are also ones with 14 knobs, corresponding to a form with two opposite hexagons, each surrounded by six pentagons. 

Nonetheless, the dodecahedron appears here long before the Greeks wrote of it.  The function of these stones is unknown and so it is unclear whether I should list them here under the category art, but many are intricately carved with spirals or cross-hatching on the faces.  The material varies from easily carved sandstone and serpentine to difficult, hard granite and quartzite.


Left: Mysterious cone-shaped object carved from mammoth ivory.
Right: Human-looking figurines found at Zaraysk, Russia, carved from mammoth tusks.

Southeast of Moscow, Russia, about 93 miles is an Old Stone Age excavation at Zaraysk, where Russian scientists have discovered figurines and carvings on mammoth tusks dated to around 22,000 years ago. The cone-shaped ivory tusk carving (above) is unique among Palaeolithic artifacts and its function is a puzzle.


This photo of the stunning Ta Prohm Temple deep in the jungles of Cambodia.This temple is the work of the remarkable Khmer civilization which lasted from the 800’s AD until the 1400’s AD. The temple is covered with the most intricate of carvings.

A visitor to the area noticed very distinct and clear images that seem to depict a Stegosaurus. The "type fossil" of Stegosaurus was first discovered in Colorado's stretch of the Morrison Formation. It was named in 1877 by the famous paleontologist Othniel C. Marsh - close to 1,000 years after the above carving was done.

Of course, at its discovery it was a bone, not a full sized animal. How did the Cambodians who carved the relief know what the creature may have looked like?


This is a hammer made from an alloy of iron which is very modern in technology, which is encased in "10 million" year old rock which has formed around it.

"This ancient tool has a simple form, similar to the type of hammer that is still common in Germany today. The handle now is a very hard petrified crystal with an intact structure. It was possible to ascertain that the interior of the handle had partly turned into porous coal.


Mysterious iron pipes at the foot of Mount Baigong, located in the depths of the Qaidam Basin, Qinghai Province, has roused concern from related departments. What is astonishing is inside for there is a half-pipe about 40 centimeters in diameter tilting from the top to the inner end of the cave. Another pipe of the same diameter goes into the earth with only its top visible above the ground. At the opening of the cave there are a dozen pipes at the diameter between 10 and 40 centimeters run into the mount straightly, showing high fixing technique.

About 80 meters away from the caves is the shimmering Toson Lake, on whose beach 40 meters away, many iron pipes can be found scattered on sands and rocks. They run in the east-west direction with a diameter between 2 and 4.5 centimeters.

More strange is that there are also some pipes in the lake, some reaching above water surface and some buried below, with similar shapes and thickness with those on the beach.

A group of nine Chinese scientists will go to west China's Qinghai Province this month to closely examine the relics. According to Qin Jianwen, head of the publicity department of the Delingha government, the scraps were once taken to a local smeltery for analysis. The result shows that they are made up of 30 percent ferric oxide with a large amount of silicon dioxide and calcium oxide. Eight percent of the content could not be identified.

"The large content of silicon dioxide and calcium oxide is a result of long interaction between iron and sandstone, which means the pipes must be very old," said Liu Shaolin, the engineer who did the analysis.

"This result has made the site even more mysterious," Qin said."Nature is harsh here. There are no residents let alone modern industry in the area, only a few migrant herdsmen to the north of the mountain."


A terracotta statue of of approximately 18 cm of length representing one strange dinosaur/sauropod with plates on its back. The plates are triangular, and continue along the back until reaching the tail. Age...Very Old


In 1929, a group of historians found an amazing map drawn on a gazelle skin. Research showed that it was a genuine document drawn in 1513 by Piri Reis, a famous admiral of the Turkish fleet in the sixteenth century. His passion was cartography. His high rank within the Turkish navy allowed him to have a privileged access to the Imperial Library of Constantinople.The Turkish admiral admits in a series of notes on the map that he compiled and copied the data from a large number of source maps, some of which dated back to the fourth century BC or earlier.

The Controversy... The Piri Reis map shows the western coast of Africa, the eastern coast of South America, and the northern coast of Antarctica. The northern coastline of Antarctica is perfectly detailed. The most puzzling however is not so much how Piri Reis managed to draw such an accurate map of the Antarctic region 300 years before it was discovered, but that the map shows the coastline under the ice. Geological evidence confirms that the latest date Queen Maud Land could have been charted in an ice-free state is 4000 BC.

The famous Piri Reis map was lost for many centuries. It was discovered by coincidence in the Topkai Palace in Istanbul in 1929.

In 1957 the Piri Reis map was given to the leading cartographer of the US Navy in order to be examined in detail. The contracted cartographers made an astonishing discovery that created a number of mysteries to this day. The map, centered exactly on the Giza Plateau in Egypt, shows not only the exact coastlines and contours of all the continents, but also their exact topographical characteristics such as mountain tops, mountain ranges, islands, plateaus and even rivers. The exactness of these details baffled the cartographers of the US Navy. But not only the known continents and the newly discovered America were so exactly shown. Antartica was also exactly mapped! Researchers recently mapped the coastline of Antartica in 1952 and they managed this only with the newest technology that was available at the time.

A further peculiarity of the Piri Reis map is the spherical trigonometry, that is, the curvature of the earth. Already a few centuries before longtitude and latitude were used and before the first globe existed, these lines were already drawn on the map. More astonishing is also the exactness of the details even though it was in 1780 when a standardized longtitude and latitude system was first used. The deformation that the Piri Reis map shows is therefore no error - on the contrary! It is the clear proof that one completed the map from a height. Examinations carried out by NASA showed that the deformation resulted when, for example, a satellite in orbit is located exactly above the Giza Plateau and takes a photo of the Earth from there. NASA took some test pictures using orbiting satellites and their pictures were then compared with the Piri Reis map. It was conculded that the map was exactly worked and there was only a difference of 1°. This difference can be clarified because the map was copied by hand from older sources. It is more astonishing that there was only a difference of just 1 degree.

Antartica, drawn in its ice-free state on the map, was first discovered in 1818 and its coastline was first researched in 1952. How is it then possible that Antartica is drawn in such a way on the Piri Reis map? Is there a possibility that a long-forgotten culture saw Antartica without ice and researched it? That this culture created the original maps on which the Piri Reis map is based? What was this culture, and more, which technical abilities did it have in order to create such a detailed map? How is it possible that the Piri Reis map shows a deformation that can be proven when one takes a photo from Earth's orbit? There are endless questions on this old map and the only one who could answer these questions was Piri Reis´, as long as he really knew something about the origins of the original maps. All that we can do today is wonder at this map and reach our own conclusions.

The Antarcticice sheet is, on average, 10,000 feet deep. Who knows what civilizations existed on the continent before the ice buildup.


So-Called experts say this is a natural formation.
Much more like ancient ruins that display a high level of technology.


This is The Badlands Guardian located up in the badlands of Canada. "Experts" say this is due to natural weathering. Really?

The Great Pyramid at Giza (Egypt)

No one yet truly knows how the Great Pyramid was built. Many theories abound; but no provable facts exist. The largest stones used were 70 tons in weight. We would have difficulty today in moving such.

Its alignment to the "heavens" was remarkable considering the structure is comprised of some 2,000,000 stone blocks.

Now, if you think a 70 ton block is big, check the next item out!

Baalbek (In Lebanon)

The temple very visibly incorporates into its foundation many stones weighing 1,500 tons each.

They are some 68 x 14 x 14 feet! They are the largest worked stones on earth! It is a mystery how such stones could have been moved into place, even according to our science and engineering knowledge of today. It is also a fact neither the Romans nor the Greeks used this type of stonework.

So, who built it and how and when?

Maybe someday these artifacts will be explained - maybe not. More are likely to be found. But, we should keep looking. For, as 'Mulder' was want to say, "The truth is out there!"